In Re Gault – Half-a-Century Old

On February 14, 1912, when Robert Taft was president, Arizona became the last territory to join the continental United States. Statehood had followed decades of violence among white settlers, Mormons, Mexicans and Native Americans. They fought over growing cotton. Labor fought business. Everyone fought over water rights. In early 1903, it was decided to build a colossal dam. This was called The Salt River Project and was located sixty miles northeast of Mesa. Construction began in 1905 and the last block was laid in 1911. It was dedicated by Former President Theodore Roosevelt on March 18. It flooded over 16,000 acres, which created the largest artificial lake in the world at that time.  Yet, controversy over water rights continues to this day. Continue reading

Kratom – Arizona and Beyond

Darren (not his real name) is a 19-year-old freshman at an Ivy League School. He attended private schools and was always a straight-A student. He was involved in extracurricular activities and had good friends. He stayed away from students using drugs and alcohol. He worked summers at a local newspaper.

There was a family history of Major Depressive and Bipolar II Disorder. Soon after he arrived at college, Darren became anxious. He thought everyone was smarter and he struggled with his courses. Midway through the first semester, his parents informed him they were getting divorced. Darren had no idea their marriage had been an unhappy one.  He was devastated. His sadness grew and he became too preoccupied to study. Continue reading

Miranda at 50

MIRANDA  AT  50 – The Story of Ernesto Miranda & The Miranda Warning

“You have the right to remain silent. If you give up the right to remain silent, anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to an attorney and to have an attorney present during questioning. If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be provided to you at no cost. During any questioning, you may decide at any time to exercise these rights, not answer any questions or make any statements. Do you understand these rights as I have read them to you?”

Perhaps no other outcome of a United States Supreme Court decision is as well known by the general public as Miranda v. Arizona (384 U.S. 436 (1966)). In detective procedural books, on television and in film, police read these rights to anyone accused of a crime. The Miranda Warning, after half a century, is part of our national culture. It is hard to believe there was a time when these rights were not acknowledged. Continue reading